**Internal Name:** **Sensorless
Position without Drift**

**What’s New:** Sensorless
determination of solenoid position has been based on AC inductance measurement,
which suffers from poor signal-to-noise ratio.
Integrating inductive voltage to obtain flux linkage is an alternative
way to get at inductance and position, but this approach suffers from
integration drift. The new approach
merges the two techniques, resulting in a low-noise flux integral that is free
from drift and that can be used, in conjunction with a current measurement, for
computing position.

**Status:** Issued
U.S. Oct. 9, 2001

**Why:**
In AC motor applications it is common to track winding flux linkage over
time by using AC integration of inductive voltage.
The flux integral leads to sensorless determination of both armature
position (or angle) and magnetic force (or torque).
In an AC situation with a rotating armature, the average flux linkage is
known to be zero, so the flux linkage integral is simply caused to drift toward
zero at zero frequency. In solenoid
control, there is no such symmetry of flux varying about a zero average, so the
flux integral must be initialized to a realistic absolute value and then
integrated over time – a process that is highly prone to drift problems. Solenoid flux integration and flux control can be made to
work over the very short time interval of a quick transition to soft landing,
but this process fails when control must be extended in time, possibly even for
long enough to temporarily maintain partial valve lift and controlled gas flow
reduction in an engine valve solenoid. Overcoming
this drift problem opens the realm of sensorless position determination and
motion control to a broader range of applications, including DC position
determination and servo control of position down to DC.

**How:**
This invention takes advantage of the AC information naturally present in
the current ripple induced by a PWM drive signal, using this drift-free but
inherently noisy data in a narrow frequency band extending down to DC.
In our system, position is computed from the low-noise ratio of winding
current to winding flux linkage, where flux linkage is the time integral of
inductive voltage in the winding. The
drift-free inductance information derived from the AC PWM data is used to
correct the drift of the flux linkage integral, extending the validity of this
integral down to DC. Because a slow
flux integral drift rate corresponds to a low required bandwidth for drift
correction, this process can be tuned to minimize the effect of high frequency
noise inherent in the PWM-based inductance data.

**Download**: System to
Determine Solenoid Position and Flux without Drift
U.S. 6,300,733 Bergstrom

**Magnesense
LLC Gorham,ME (207) 839-8637**

**©2009
Joseph Seale **